A new corticolous species of Mycena sect. Viscipelles (Basidiomycota: Agaricales) from the bark of a Living American elm tree in Texas, U.S.A.
Keywords:fungal diversity, moist chamber cultures, mophological development, multifocal imaging, computer stacking, mushroom, mycenoid fungi, pseuodocollarium, taxonomy
A Mycena species new to science was obtained from moist chamber cultures of trunk bark of a living American elm tree (Ulmus americana) located in the Fort Worth Botanic Garden, Tarrant County, Texas. This discovery was part of an ongoing study of corticolous myxomycetes on larger American elm trees occurring in Fort Worth nature parks. More than 15 American elm trees were sampled for trunk bark but only a single tree yielded Mycena basidiomes. Collections of bark began in the summer of 2017 and continued until the beginning of 2020. Bark samples from the north, south and west side of the tree yielded fruit bodies of the mushroom in moist chamber culture. No fruit bodies were observed in nature nor were early formation stages on the underside of the bark. Crystals previously described in another study were present on the bark surfaces, edges, and undersides. Habit and morphological development were photographed using light microscopy applying multifocal imaging and computer stacking to increase depth of field. Basidiome development was observed and photographed from the earliest primordial beginning stage, the button stage, intermediate stage and the final emerging stalk elongation and mature cap formation stage. Mature mushroom development took from 9 to 21 days after wetting the bark in moist chamber cultures. Scanning electron microscopy was used to illustrate development of the button stage, emerging stalk and pileus stage, and the fully mature pileus, lamellae, and pseudocollarium. Morphological features and DNA sequence data confirmed that this Mycena species was undescribed and distinct from other Mycena taxa. Morphological features suggest placement of the novel taxon in Mycena sect. Viscipelles, distinct from other members based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis.
Altschul, S.F., W. Gish, W. Miller, E.W. Meyers, & D.J. Lipman. 1990. Basic local alignment search tool. J. Molec. Biol. 215:403–410.
Anonymous. 1983, 1987. Fort Worth Botanic Garden: A history. Fort Worth Botanic Garden, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.A.
Aronsen, A. & T. Læssøe. 2016. The genus Mycena s.l., Fungi of Northern Europe – vol. 5. A. Aronsen, T. Læssøe, & The Danish Mycological Society. 373 p.
Bunyard, B.A. 2012. Which way is up? Mushroom gravitropism. Fungi 54(4):26–28.
Gardes, M. & T.D. Bruns. 1993. ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes – application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molec. Ecol. 2:113–118.
Huelsenbeck, J.P. & F. Ronquist. 2001. MrBayes: Bayesian inference of phylogeny. Bioinformatics 17:754–755.
Keller, H.W. 2004. Tree canopy biodiversity: Student research experiences in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Syst. Geogr. Pl. 74:47–65.
Keller, H.W. & K.L. Braun. 1999. Myxomycetes of Ohio: Their systematics, biology and use in teaching. Ohio Biol. Surv. Bull. 13(2):1–182.
Keller, H.W., S.E. Everhart, M. Skrabal, & C.M. Kilgore. 2009. Tree canopy biodiversity in temperate forests: Exploring islands in the sky. S.E. Biol. 56(1):52–74.
Keller, H.W. & V.M. Marshall. 2019. A new iridescent corticolous myxomycete species (Licea: Liceaceae: Liceales) and crystals on American elm tree bark in Texas, U.S.A. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 13(2):367–386.
Kirk, P.M., P.F. Canon, J.C. David, & J.A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s dictionary of the fungi (9th edition). CABI Bioscience, Wallingford, Oxon, UK.
Kornerup, A. & J.H. Wanscher. 1978. Methuen handbook of colour. 3rd ed. Eyre Methuen, London, UK.
Kühner, R. 1931. Utilisation de la réaction iodée dans la classification des Mycena. Bull. Bi-mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon 10(16):122–127.
Kühner, R. 1938. Le Genre Mycena (Fries), Etude cytologique et systématique des espèces d’Europe et d’Amérique du Nord. Encyclopédie Mycologique 10:1–710. Paul Lechevalier, ed. Paris, France.
Larkin, M.A., G. Blackshields, N.P. Brown, R. Chenna, P.A. McGettigan., H. McWilliam, F. Valentin, L.M. Wallace, A. Wilm, R. Lopez, J.D. Thompson, T.J. Gibson, & D.G. Higgins. 2007. Clustal W & Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics 23:2947–2948.
Maas Geesteranuas, R.A. 1984. Conspectus of the Mycenas of the Northern Hemisphere – 2, Sections Viscipelles, Amictae, and Supinae. Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch. C. 87(2):131–147.
Maddison, W.P. & D.R. Maddison. 2015. Mesquite: A modular system for evolutionary analysis. Version 3.04 (http://mesquiteproject.org).
Perry, B.A., K. Hansen, & D.H. Pfister. 2007. A phylogenetic overview of the family Pyronemataceae (Ascomycota, Pezizales). Mycol. Res. 111:549–571.
Robich, G. 2003. Mycena d’Europa. A.M.B. Fondazione Centro Studi Micologici.
Robich, G. 2016. Mycena d’Europa, Volume 2. A.M.B. Fondazione Centro Studi Micologici.
Ronquist, F. & J.P. Huelsenbeck. 2003. Mr. Bayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19:1572–1574.
Smith, A.H. 1947. North American species of Mycena. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, U.S.A.
Snell, K.L. & H.W. Keller. 2003. Vertical distribution and assemblages of corticolous myxomycetes on five tree species in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Mycologia 95:565–576.
Stamatakis, A. 2014. RAxML Version 8: A tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies. Bioinformatics 10.1093/bioinformatics/btu033.
Swofford, D.L. 2002. PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and Other Methods). Version 4. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
Vellinga, E.C. 1988. Glossary. In C. Bas, Th.W. Kuyper, M.E. Noordeloos, & E.C. Vellinga, eds. Flora Agaracina Neerlandica Vol. I. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Pp. 54–64.
Walther, V., K.-H. Rever, & G. Kost. 2001. The ontogeny of the fruit bodies of Mycena stylobates. Mycol. Res. 105(6):723–733.
White, T.J., T. Bruns, S. Lee, & J. Taylor. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis, M.A., D.H. Gelfand, J.J. Sninsky, & T.J. White, eds. PCR Protocols: A guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, U.S.A. Pp. 315–322.