Notes on the natural history of Stillingia aquatica (Euphorbiaceae): with special attention to reproductive biology


  • George Rogers Palm Beach State College (ret.)



caruncle, depression marsh, elaiosome, embryo abortion, Euphorbiaceae, Hippomaneae, geitonogamy, mixed mating system, protogyny


Stillingia aquatica, a wetland shrub in the Southeastern U.S., was profiled in Southeast Florida from a natural history standpoint. The stem has exceptionally lightweight wood in common with other periodically root-inundated woody plants. Pseudowhorled tufts of conspicuous yellow leaves subtend the similarly colored spikelike thyrsoid inflorescences. The plants are monoecious, self-compatible, protogynous with respect to inflorescences, and with a mixed mating system. After a pistillate-only phase, pistillate and staminate phases overlap in time, and are positioned in close physical proximity within inflorescences. Then follows a prolonged phase of only staminate flowers plus maturing fruits. The inflorescences attract ants, bees, and especially abundant wasps, switching from mixed bees and wasps in the dry season to essentially just wasps in the wet season. Wind-pollination is minimal to none. Ants are often abundant in the inflorescences and believed to contribute to geitonogamy but are not necessary for fruitset. Agamospermy is none to negligible. The seeds often fail, with the failure rates varying between populations and between individual plants.


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How to Cite

Rogers, G. . (2021). Notes on the natural history of Stillingia aquatica (Euphorbiaceae): with special attention to reproductive biology. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 15(1), 183–199.