Endobeuthos paleosum in 99-million-year-old amber does not belong to the Proteaceae


  • Byron B. Lamont Curtin University
  • Philip G. Ladd Murdoch University




Species in the family Proteaceae are almost invariably tetramerous with the stamen adnate to a tepal. Andromonoecious inflorescences bearing many male flowers composed of a single (spathuloid) stamen and a female flower with a pubescent stigma, as in Endobeuthos paleosum, are unknown. We suggest that the specimen is a bisexual flower with scores of stamens surrounding a single stigma-style. Further, the specimen is too old to fit with current understanding of the migratory history of the Proteaceae.


CHAMBERS, K.L. & G.O. POINAR, JR. 2023. Reinterpretation of the mid-Cretaceous fossil flower Endobeuthos paleosum as a capitular, unisexual inflorescence of Proteaceae. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 17(2):449–456.

HE, T, B.B. LAMONT, & B. FOGLIANI. 2016. Pre-Gondwanan-breakup origin of Beauprea (Proteaceae) explains its historical presence in New Caledonia and New Zealand. Sci. Advances 2:e1501648.

LADD, P.G. & B.J. BOWEN. 2020. Pollen release in the Proteaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 30:81.

LAMONT, B.B. 1982. The reproductive biology of Grevillea leucopteris (Proteaceae), including reference to its glandular hairs and colonizing potential. Flora 172:1?20.

LAMONT, B.B., T. HE, & R.M. COWLING. 2024b. Fossil pollen resolves origin of the South African Proteaceae as transcontinental not transoceanic. Ann. Bot. doi: org/10.1093/aob/mcad055

LAMONT, B.B., T. HE, L.A. MILNE, & R.M. COWLING. 2024a. Out of Africa: Linked continents, overland migration and differential survival explain abundance of Proteaceae in Australia. Perspect. Pl. Ecol. Evol. Syst. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.4522959

LAMONT, B.B., A. THORNHILL, & D. KORCZYNZKYI. 2022. Gondwanan origin of the Dipterocarpaceae -Cistaceae-Bixaceae is supported by fossils, areocladograms, ecomorphological traits and tectonic-plate dynamics. Frontiers Biogeogr. 14.4: e56893.

REBELO, T. 2001. Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of Southern Africa, 2nd ed. Fernwood Press, Cape Town, South Africa.

ROURKE, J.P. 1998. A review of the systematics and phylogeny of the African Proteaceae. Austral. Syst. Bot. 11:267?285.

SHI, C., S. WANG, H. CAI, H. ZHANG, X. LONG, E. TIHELKA, W.C. SONG, Q. FENG, R.X. JIANG, C.Y. CAI, ET AL. 2022. Fire-prone Rhamnaceae with South African affinities in cretaceous Myanmar amber. Nature Pl. 8:125–135.

TELFORD, I.R.H. 1995. Agastachys. Flora of Australia 16:131.

VON BALTHAZAR, M. & P.K. ENDRESS. 2002. Development of inflorescences and flowers in Buxaceae and the problem of perianth interpretation. Int. J. Pl. Sci. 163:847?876.




How to Cite

Lamont, B. B., & Ladd, P. G. (2024). Endobeuthos paleosum in 99-million-year-old amber does not belong to the Proteaceae. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 18(1), 143–147. https://doi.org/10.17348/jbrit.v18.i1.1343