A multiyear qualitative study of an isolated inland population of salt heliotrope (Heliotropium curassavicum var. curassavicum, Boraginaceae) in Arkansas, U.S.A.

  • Renn Tumlison Department of Biological Sciences, Henderson State University
  • Brett Serviss Department of Biological Sciences, Henderson State University

Abstract

In Arkansas, Heliotropium curassavicum L. (salt heliotrope, seaside heliotrope) is known from only three locations in which higher salinity allows its existence. We examined one of these sites along Saline Bayou, Clark County, over a period of 10 years to examine the life history of one variety of the species, H. curassavicum L. var. curassavicum (salt heliotrope) in a patch habitat. Seedlings were found only where other plant species did not grow and in areas of soil activity (caused by salinity) much higher than sites upstream of a salt seep. Flood events scoured the streambed habitat, often uprooting established plants, but yearly recruitment was observed from dispersed seeds. Impoundment by beavers (Castor canadensis) more permanently flooded a section of the habitat, resulting in no growth of the plant in newly inundated spaces, but greater numbers of new sprouts were observed along the new banks in the salty portion of the stream. Shading seemed to limit growth of the heliotrope along the stream and under a bridge, as few plants sprouted in those areas and any that did were stunted compared to other specimens growing in full sun.

References

Arkansas Vascular Flora Committee. 2006. Checklist of the vascular plants of Arkansas. Arkansas Vascular Flora Committee, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, U.S.A.

Brown, M.E. & S.C. Walls. 2013. Variation in salinity tolerance among larval anurans: Implications for community composition and the spread of an invasive, non-native species. Copeia 2013:543–551.

Brzyski, J.R. & B.A. Schulte. 2009. Beaver (Castor canadensis) impacts on herbaceous and woody vegetation in southeastern Georgia. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 162:74–86.

Correll, D.S. & H.B. Correll. 1975. Aquatic and wetland plants of the southeastern United States, Volume II. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, U.S.A. Pp. 1384–1387.

Correll, D.S. & M.C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation, Renner, Texas, U.S.A.

Dhankhar, R., A. Kaushik, & J.S. Dahiya. 2002. Germination responses and biomass accumulation of three native plant species of Haryana, India under salinity stress. Pl. Arch. 2:263–267.

FEMA-1793-DR, Arkansas Disaster Declaration. 2008. Available at www.fema.gov/disaster/1793. Accessed Jan 2018.

Gentry, J.L., G.P. Johnson, B.T. Baker, C.T. Witsell, & J.D. Ogle, eds. 2013. Atlas of the vascular plants of Arkansas. Univ. of Arkansas Herbarium, Fayetteville, Arkansas, U.S.A.

Godfrey, R.K. & J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of the southeastern United States, Dicotyledons. The University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia, U.S.A.

Holmes, W.C. & D.T. Stalling. 1990. Studies on the reproductive strategy of Zizaniopsis miliacea (Michx.) Doell. & Asch. (Gramineae: Tribe Oryzeae). Castanea 55:113–121.

Hua, J. & B.A. Pierce. 2013. Lethal and sublethal effects of salinity on three common Texas amphibians. Copeia 2013:562–566.

Hussey, B.M.J., G.J. Keigbery, R.D. Cousens, J. Dodd, & S.G. Lloyd. 1997. Western weeds: A guide to the western weeds of Australia. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia (Inc.), Victoria Park, Western Australia. Pp. 110–112.

Kroes, D.E. & C.W. Bason. 2015. Sediment-trapping by beaver ponds in streams of the mid-Atlantic Piedmont and Coastal Plain, USA. S. E. Naturalist (Steuben) 14:577–595.

Littlefield, D.F., Jr. 1973. The salt industry in Arkansas Territory, 1819–1836. Arkansas Hist. Quart. 32:312–336.

Martin, A.C. 1953. Improving duck marshes by weed control. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service Circular No. 19. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.

Metts, B.S., J.D. Lanham, & K.R. Russell. 2001. Evaluation of herpetofaunal communities on upland streams and beaver-impounded streams in the upper Piedmont of South Carolina. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 145:54–65.

Naiman, R.J., J.M. Melillo, & J.E. Hobbie. 1986. Ecosystem alteration of boreal forest streams by beaver (Castor canadensis). Ecology 67:1254–1269.

Naiman, R.J., G. Pinay, C.A. Johnston, & J. Pastor. 1994. Beaver influences on the long-term biogeochemical characteristics of boreal forest drainage network. Ecology 75:905–921.

Penfund, W.T. 1952. Southern swamps and marshes. Bot. Rev. 18:413–446.

Ray, A M., A.J. Rebertus, & H.L. Ray. 2001. Macrophyte succession in Minnesota beaver ponds. Canad. J. Bot. 79:487–499.

Rose, F.P. 1952. Primitive salt works. Arkansas Hist. Quart. 11:315–326.

Steenis, J.H. & C. Cottam. 1945. A progress report on the marsh and aquatic plant problem: Reelfoot Lake. J. Tenn. Acad. Sci. 20:6–19.

Stevens, C.E., C.A. Paszkowski, & G.J. Scrimgeour. 2006. Older is better: Beaver ponds on boreal streams as breeding habitat for the wood frog. J. Wildl. Managem. 70:1360–1371.

Trauth, S.E., H.W. Robison, & M.V. Plummer. 2004. The amphibians and reptiles of Arkansas. University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas, U.S.A.

Tumlison, R. & B.E. Serviss. 2007. Discovery of a second record of seaside heliotrope (Heliotropium curassavicum L.) (Boraginaceae) in Arkansas. J. Arkansas Acad. Sci. 61:137–139.

U.S. Climate Data. 2018. Available at www.usclimatedata.com. Accessed Jan 2018.

Weber, D.J. & J. Hanks. 2006. Heliotropium currasavicum. In: M.A. Khan & D.J. Weber, eds. Ecophysiology of high salinity tolerant plants. Springer Press, Netherlands.

Published
2018-11-20
How to Cite
Tumlison, R., & Serviss, B. (2018). A multiyear qualitative study of an isolated inland population of salt heliotrope (Heliotropium curassavicum var. curassavicum, Boraginaceae) in Arkansas, U.S.A. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 12(2), 689-696. Retrieved from https://journals.brit.org/jbrit/article/view/971