Natural history of neotropical Ericaceae, 1

Gonocalyx pulcher (Ericaceae: Vaccinieae), a rediscovered and retypified Colombian blueberry

  • James L. Luteyn The New York Botanical Garden
  • Daniel Mauricio Díaz-Rueda RENAZ - Red de Reservas Naturales de Zapatoca, GIMBBE - Grupo de Investigación sobre Memoria Biocultural y Botánica Económica, ICN - Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Keywords: Neotropics, Andes, endemism, cultivation, nomenclature, lectotypification, key to species, conservation status

Abstract

Gonocalyx pulcher (Ericaceae: Vaccinieae) has been rediscovered in the northeastern Colombian Andes after a lapse of over 135 years. Recent collections herein reported represent the only collections made since the type gathering by Schlim in 1851. The history of collections, cultivation, taxonomy, and nomenclature is re-viewed. Generic and species descriptions for G. pulcher are updated and photographic illustrations are provided. The vegetation in which G. pulcher occurs, a list of its commonly associated Ericaceae, and its conservation status are briefly described. A new second-step lectotypification is made and the associated type herbarium specimens are illustrated. A key to all 11 species of Gonocalyx is provided.

References

Bachman, S., J. Moat, A.W. Hill, J. de la Torre, & B. Scott. 2011. Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: Geospatial conservation assessment tool. ZooKeys 150:117–126. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.150.2109
Bentham, G. & J.D. Hooker f. 1876. Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in Herbariis Kewensibus servata definita. 3 vols. Reeve, Williams & Norgate, London. [Vacciniaceae 2:564–577]
Brummitt, R.K. & C.E. Powell. 1992. Authors of plant names. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
Ceulemans, N.S. 2006. Jean Linden. Explorer - Master of the Orchids. Fonds Mercator, Brussels, Belgiium. [website: jeanlinden.com]
Churchill, S.P., H. Balslev, E. Forero, & J.L. Luteyn, eds. 1995. Biodiversity and conservation of neotropical montane forests. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY, U.S.A.
Contreras-Vásquez, M.A. 2017. Caracterización de los recursos florales utilizados por los colibríes en la RNSC “La Montaña Mágica - El Poleo,” Zapatoca, Santander. Trabajo de grado presentado para optar al título de Bióloga. Universidad Nacional de Colombia – Sede Bogotá, Colombia.
Contreras-Vázquez, M.A. 2019. Interacciones entre colibríes y flores en la Reserva Natural de la Sociedad Civil “La Montaña Mágica - El Poleo,” Zapatoca, Santander (Colombia). Ponencia oral presentada en el XI Congreso de Ornitología Neotropical, San José, Costa Rica.
DAMA (Departamento Técnico Administrativo Medio Ambiente). 2000. Protocolo distrital de restauración ecológica: Guía para la restauración de ecosistemas nativos en las áreas rurales de Santa Fé de Bogotá. Departamento Técnico Administrativo Medio Ambiente (DAMA), Alcaldía Mayor de Santa Fé de Bogotá, Bachaqueros, Fundación Estación Biológica. Santa Fé de Bogotá, Colombia.
Davies, R.A., ed. 2002. Index Kewensis Supplement 21. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
Farr, E.R., J.A. Leussink, & F.A. Stafleu, eds. 1979. Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Regnum Veg. 100–102:1–1896. Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, Utrecht, Netherlands.
Farr, E.R., J.A. Leussink, & G. Zijlstra, eds. 1986. Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum) Supplementum I. Regnum Veg. 113:1–126. Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, Utrecht, Netherlands.
Floricultural Cabinet. 1856 (March). [Gonocalyx pulcher Pl. & Lind.] 24:57, illustr.
Furbush, R., I.W. Caviedes-Solis, F.R. Me?ndez-de la Cruz, & A.D. Leache?. 2017. Missing in action for nearly 50 years: Rediscovery of the Mexican treefrog Duellmanohyla ignicolor (Anura: Hylidae). Mesoamerican Herpetology 4:120–127.
Hoerold, R. 1909. Systematische Gliederung und geographische Verbreitung der amerikanischen Thibaudieen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 42:251–334.
Index Nominum Genericorum (ING). 1954 (printed cards) and 1979 (book form, Farr et al. 1979). A compilation of generic names published for organisms covered by the ICN: International code of nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. [Supplement: Farr et al. 1986; online at https://naturalhistory2.si.edu/botany/ing/]
IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2019. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria. Version 14. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. Available at iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf. [Accessed Aug. 2021]
Jackson, B.D. & J.D. Hooker, eds. [1893]–1895. Index Kewensis plantarum phanerogamarum: nomina et synonym omnium generum et specierum a linnaeo usque as annum MDCCCLXXXV complectans nomine recepro auctore patria unicuique planta subjectis: sumptibus beati Caroli Roberti Darwin ductu et consilio Josephi D. Hooker. Tomus 1–22 [Index Kewensis: an enumeration of the genera and species of flowering plants from the time of Linnaeus to the year 1885 inclusive together with their authors names, the works in which they were first published, their native countries and their synonyms: compiled at the expense of the late Charles Robert Darwin under the direction of Joseph D. Hooker. 2 vols.]. Clarendon Press, Oxford. doi: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.66720
JSTOR-Plants. 2018. JSTOR global plants. http://plants.jstor.org/
Judd, W.S. & J.L. Luteyn. 2006. Rediscovery of Agarista bracamorensis (Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae). Rhodora 108:97–102. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23313707
Kron, K.A. & J.L. Luteyn. 2005. Origins and biogeographic patterns in Ericaceae: New insights from recent phylogenetic analyses. Biol. Skr. 55:479–500.
Kron, K.A., E.A. Powell, & J.L. Luteyn. 2002a. Phylogenetic relationships within the blueberry tribe (Vaccinieae, Ericaceae) based on sequence data from matK and nuclear ribosomal ITS regions, with comments on the placement of Satyria. Amer. J. Bot. 89:327–336. doi: 10.3732/ajb.89.2.327
Kron, K.A., W.S. Judd, P.F. Stevens, D.M. Crayn, A.A. Anderberg, P.A. Gadek, C.J. Quinn, & J.L. Luteyn. 2002b. Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: Molecular and morphological evidence. Bot. Rev. 68(3):335–423.
Linden, J.J. 1853–1869. Jardin royal de zoologie et d’horticulture, de Bruxelles. Établissement d’introduction pour les plantes nouvelles, Catalogue des plantes exotiques, nouvelles et rares, cultivées dans les serres de J. Linden, … à Bruxelles. [TL-II abbrev.: Cat. pl. exot.] This overall title is given to Linden’s nursery catalogues numbers 8–23 (1853–1869) since individual titles vary slightly, although older taxonomic literature still often refer to them simply as Linden’s Catalogue, such as Lind. Cat. no. 10:5. 1855. [Examples of the title pages for the three catalogues mentioned in this paper are: Catalogue 9 “Établissement d’Introduction Pour les Plantes Nouvelles.—Printemps et Été 1854.—Supplément et Extrait du Prix Courant des Plantes Nouvelles et Rares, disponibles chez J. Linden, Horticulteur, au Jardin Royal de Zoologie et d’Horticulture, á Bruxelles”; for Catalogue 10 “Jardin Royal de Zoologie et d’Horticulture, de Bruxelles.—No 10.—Établissement d’Introduction Pour les Plantes Nouvelles.—Catalogue des Plantes Exotiques, Nouvelles et Rares, Cultivées dans les Serres de J. Linden, …—A Bruxelles.—Printemps, Été et Automne de 1855”—Bruxelles.”; and for Catalogue 11 “Établissement d’Introduction pour les Plantes Nouvelles. (Collections Botaniques et Zoologiques).—No 11.—Supplément et Extrait du Catalogue des Plantes Exotiques, Nouvelles et Rares Cultivées dans les Serres de J. Linden, au Jardin Royal de Zoologie et d’Horticulture á Bruxelles.—Prix Courant pour Printemps, Été et Automne de 1856—Bruxelles.”]
Linden, J.J. & J.E. Planchon. 1863. Plantae columbianae. Bruxelles. Reprint ed. 1977, Boerhaave Press, Leiden. [see “Avant-propos,” p. i]
Lindley, J. 1856. New Plants. “164. Gonocalyx pulcher. Planchon and Linden Fl. Columb. ined.” Gard. Chron. 1856:152. [March 8, 1856]
Liogier, A.H. 1971. Novitates Antillanae. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 21:107–157. [Gonocalyx tetrapterus, p. 140 and fig. 6A–E]
Luteyn J.L. 1976a. Notes on neotropical Vaccinieae (Ericaceae). I. Gonocalyx—a genus new to Central America. Brittonia 28:37–41. [Gonocalyx pterocarpus, p. 38, fig. 1; G. costaricensis, p. 40, fig. 2]
Luteyn J.L. 1976b. Notes on neotropical Vaccinieae (Ericaceae). III. New and noteworthy species from Mexico and Central America. Brittonia 28:400–406. [Gonocalyx almedae, p. 403, fig. 1]
Luteyn, J.L. 1987a. Orthaea (Ericaceae-Vaccinieae): New species and redefinition of the genus. Nord. J. Bot. 7(1):31–37.
Luteyn, J.L. 1987b. New species and notes on neotropical Ericaceae, Opera Bot. 92:109–130.
Luteyn J.L. 1990. Gonocalyx amplexicaulis (Ericaceae): A new Panamanian blueberry. Syst. Bot. 15:745–747. [Gonocalyx amplexicaulis, p. 745, fig. 1]
Luteyn, J.L. 2001. Two new species and two new combinations in Mesoamerican Ericaceae. Brittonia 53:437–446. [Gonocalyx megabracteolatus, p. 437]
Luteyn, J.L. 2002. Diversity, adaptation, and endemism in neotropical Ericaceae: Biogeographical patterns in the Vaccinieae. In: K. Young, C. Ulloa Ulloa, J.L. Luteyn & S. Knapp, co-authors & eds. Plant evolution and endemism in Andean South America. Bot. Rev. 68:55–87. doi10.1663/0006-8101(2002)068[0055:DAAEIN]2.0.CO;2
Luteyn, J.L. 2004. Ericaceae (Heath Family). Pp. 140–143. In: N. P. Smith, S.A. Mori, A. Henderson, D.W. Stevenson & S.V. Heald, eds. Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, U.S.A.
Luteyn, J.L. 2019. Typification in and contributions to a revision of Psammisia (Ericaceae: Vaccinieae). J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 13:397–449.
Luteyn, J.L. & P. Pedraza-Peñalosa. 2021. Ericaceae. In: Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. et al. 2015-onwards. Lianas and climbing plants of the Neotropics. https://naturalhistory.si.edu/research/botany/research/lianas-and-climbing-plants-neotropics
Luteyn, J.L., R.L. Wilbur & L.B. Dorr. 2009. Ericaceae. Pp. 411–463. In: G. Davidse, M. Sousa S., S. Knapp, & F. Chiang, eds. Flora Mesoamericana: Cucurbitaceae a Polemoniaceae, Vol. 4(1). Mexico. [Gonocalyx, pp. 442–444]
Macbride, J.F. 1959. Ericaceae. In: J.F. Macbride, ed. Flora of Peru. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 13(5):50–149.
Martins, Ch. 1856. Revue de l’Horticulture étrangère. Rev. Hort. IV. 5:162–165. [May 1856] https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/196176 [—description of Gonocalyx pulcher taken from the Gardeners’ Chronicle with French translation of the English]
Morren, ed. 1856. Plantes nouvelles de serre froide et tempérée: Mises pour la première fois dans le commerce, par M.J. Linden (Extrait du catalogue de M. Liden, pour 1856). Belgique Hort. 6:232 [Gonocalyx pulcher Planch. & Lind.]. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/27339 [Gonocalyx pulcher is listed, with text a near faithful reproduction of Linden’s Catalogue 10 presentation, but without illustration]
Nevling, L.I., Jr. 1970. The ecology of an elfin forest in Puerto Rico, 12. A new species of Gonocalyx (Ericaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 51:221–227. [Gonocalyx concolor, p. 222]
Pedraza-Peñalosa, P. 2015. Themistoclesia diazii, una especie neuva relacionada con los mortiños Colombianos (Ericaceae: Vaccinieae). Caldasia 37:99–105.
Pedraza-Peñalosa, P., J.L. Luteyn, & N.R. Salinas. 2016. Lista de Ericaceae de Colombia. Pp. 1188–1212. In: R. Bernal, S.R. Gradstein, & M. Celis. 2016. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia, Vol I. Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Sede Bogotá), Colombia.
Pedraza-Peñalosa, P., N.R. Salinas, A.L.S. Virnig, & W.C. Wheeler. 2015. Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Andean clade and the placement of new Colombian blueberries (Ericaceae, Vaccinieae). PhytoKeys 49:13–31. doi: 10.3897/phytokeys.49.8622
Powell, E.A. & K.A. Kron. 2003. Molecular systematics of the northern Andean blueberries (Vaccinieae, Vaccinioideae, Ericaceae). Intern. J. Pl. Sci. 164(6):987–995. doi: 10.1086/378653
Rodríguez, Al. & J.F. Morales. 2006. El género Gonocalyx (Ericaceae) en Costa Rica, con una nueva especie. Novon 16:263–266. [Gonocalyx lilliae, p. 264]
Schwery O., R.E. Onstein, Y. Bouchenak-Khelladi, Y. Xing, R.J. Carter, & H.P. Linder. 2015. As old as the mountains: The radiations of the Ericaceae. New Phytologist 207:355–367.
Smith, A.C. 1932. The American species of Thibaudieae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 28:311–547. [Gonocalyx, pp. 329, 332, 352–355, Gonocalyx smilacifolius, p. 354, Gonocalyx portoricensis, p. 354 and plate 6]
Smith, A.C. 1936. Studies of South American plants, V. Additional notes on Thibaudieae. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 63:307–316.
Stafleu, F.A. & R.S. Cowan. 1976–1988. Taxonomic literature: A selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types, TL-II. Ed. 2. Vols. I–VII. Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, Utrecht, Netherlands.
Steinberg, C.H. 1977. The collectors and collections in the Herbarium Webb. Webbia 32:1–49.
Stevens, P.F. 1971. A classification of the Ericaceae: Subfamilies and tribes. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 64:1–53.
Taylor, G. 1966. Index Kewensis plantarum phanerogamarum. Supplementum 13. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK.
Thiers, B. 2020+. Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/
Turland, N.J., J.H. Wiersema, F.R. Barrie, W. Greuter, D.L. Hawksworth, P.S. Herendeen, S. Knapp, W.-H. Kusber, D.-Z. Li, K. Marhold, T.W. May, J. McNeill, A.M. Monro, J. Prado, M.J. Price, & G.F. Smith, eds. 2018. International code of nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017. Regnum Veg. 159. Koeltz Botanical Books, Glashütten, Germany. https://doi.org/10.12705/Code.2018
Wilbur, R.L. & J.L. Luteyn. 1981. Additions to the Ericaceae of Panama. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 68:154–166.
Published
2021-12-10
How to Cite
Luteyn, J. L., & Díaz-Rueda, D. M. (2021). Natural history of neotropical Ericaceae, 1: Gonocalyx pulcher (Ericaceae: Vaccinieae), a rediscovered and retypified Colombian blueberry. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 15(2), 377-392. https://doi.org/10.17348/jbrit.v15.i2.1156