New county records in Texas (U.S.A.) for the invasive aquatic plant Hygrophila polysperma (Acanthaceae)


  • Casey R. Williams BIO-WEST, Inc.



Hygrophila polysperma, aquatic plants, an Marcos River, Comal River, San Felipe Creek, Cibolo Creek, Lady Bird Lake, San Antonio River


This report documents three new county records for the non-native aquatic plant Hygrophila polysperma in Texas. A brief background history of the species occurrence in Texas is also provided.


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Angerstein, A.B. & D.E. Lemke. 1994. First records of the aquatic weed Hygrophila polysperma (Acanthaceae) from Texas. Sida 16:365–371.

Bio-west. 2013. Comprehensive and critical period monitoring program to evaluate the effects of variable flow on biological resources in the Comal springs/river aquatic ecosystem. Edwards Aquifer Authority, San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. Accessed 29 Nov 2018.

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Bowles, D.E. & B.D. Bowles. 2001. A review of the exotic species inhabiting the upper San Marcos River, Texas, U.S.A. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin, Texas, U.S.A. Accessed 29 Nov 2018.

Bowles, D.E. & B.D. Bowles. 2017. Non-native species of the major spring systems of Texas, U.S.A. Texas J. Sci. 67:51–78.

Boxall, B. 1976. San Marcos River plants also used in aquariums. San Marcos Daily Record. Newspaper files, San Marcos Public Library, San Marcos, Texas, U.S.A. Accessed 29 Nov 2018.

Doyle, R.D., M.D. Francis, & R.M. Smart. 2003. Interference competition between Ludwigia repens and Hygrophila polysperma: Two morphologically similar aquatic plant species. Aquatic Bot. 77:223–234.

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Edwards Aquifer Authority. 2017. Edwards aquifer habitat conservation plan annual report. Prepared for United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Austin, Texas, U.S.A. Accessed 29 Nov 2018.

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Groeger, A.W., P.F. Brown, T.E. Tietjen, & T.C. Kelsey. 1997. Water quality of the San Marcos River. Texas. J. Sci. 49(4):279–294.

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Lemke, D.E. 1989. Aquatic macrophytes of the upper San Marcos River, Hays Co., Texas. S. W. Naturalist 34:289–291.

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Mississippi Museum of Natural Science Herbarium. 2018. Accessed 29 Nov 2018.

Moro-Olivo, A., T.F. Daniel, & M. Martinez. 2008. First record in the Mexican flora of Hygrophila polysperma (Acanthaceae), an aquatic weed. Rev. Mex. Biodivers. 79:265–269.

Poole, J.M., W.R. Carr, D.M. Price, & J.R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. Texas A & M Press, College Station, Texas, U.S.A.

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Staton, L.L. 1992. Assessment of changes in the aquatic macrophyte community of the upper San Marcos River. M.S. Thesis, Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas, U.S.A.

Sutton, D.L. 1995. Hygrophila is replacing Hydrilla in South Florida. Aquatics 17:4–10.

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USFWS (United States Department of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service). 2011. Edwards aquifer recovery implementation program habitat conservation plan. Ecological Field Services, Austin, Texas, U.S.A. Accessed 29 Nov 2018.

Van Dijk, G.M., D.D. Thayer, & W.T. Haller. 1986. Growth of Hygrophila and Hydrilla in flowing water. J. Aquatic Pl. Managem. 24:85–87.

Wright, L.D. & T.J. Bister. 2013. Caddo Lake 2013 fisheries management survey report. Texas Parks Wildlife Department, Inland Fisheries Division, Austin, Texas, U.S.A. Accessed 29 Nov 2018.



How to Cite

Williams, C. R. (2019). New county records in Texas (U.S.A.) for the invasive aquatic plant Hygrophila polysperma (Acanthaceae). Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 13(1), 349–353.